Homopolysaccharides contain only a single type of monomeric unit; heteropolysaccharides contain two or more different kinds of monomeric units ( Fig. ). Homopolysaccharides are polysaccharides composed of a single type of sugar monomer. For example, cellulose is an unbranched homopolysaccharide made. Carbohydrate – Heteropolysaccharides: In general, heteropolysaccharides ( heteroglycans) contain two The major heteropolysaccharides include the connective-tissue polysaccharides, the blood group substances, Homopolysaccharides.

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How this is accomplished homopolysaccnarides through an alpha-1,4-glycosidic linkage at the C-4 terminal with the terminal hydroxyl group ready to bind on glycogen. Glycosaminoglycans are synthesized in the ER and Golgi. This enzyme breaks up the polysaccharide chain by replacing the glycosidic bond with a phosphate group. The ionized carboxylate and sulfate groups give these polymers their characteristic high negative charge.

Bioflocculants, bio-absorbents, heavy heteropolysaxcharides removal agents, drug delivery agents, and others are the new application of EPSs [ 6 ].

Heteropolysaccharides | The Biochemistry Questions Site

This compact structure produces the dense granules of stored starch or glycogen seen in many cells Hmoopolysaccharides. This enzyme utilizes glucose. The production is a less stable [ 910 ]. As adjuvant, emulsifier, carrier and stabilizer in food and pharmaceutical industries, plasma substitute, matrix of chromatography column, anticoagulant, paper industry, metal plating processing, for enhanced oil recovery, biomaterials.

Being comparatively large macromolecules, polysaccharides are most often insoluble in water.

Starch contains two types of glucose polymer, amylose and amylopectin. Glycosyltransferases are termed GTF or glycansucrases.

Exopolysaccharides Production by Lactic Acid Bacteria

Firstly, carbon substrate is assimilated. It has two main components: It is also used in smoke detectors due to its polarity. Int J Food Microbiol Application of EPSs is in various industries such as medicine, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.


Chitin is the exoskeleton of many arthropods, and is the main component of cell walls in fungi, radulas of mollusks etc.

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Most of the carbohydrates found in nature occur as polysaccharides, polymers of high molecular weight. Cellulase, an enzyme found in organisms that can digest cellulose, has recently garnered the attention of heteropolysaccuarides scientific community and especially of alternative energy researchers who hope to produce biofuel such as ethanol by enzymatically breaking down the cellulose found in plants.

They were only described for the strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. This site uses cookies. These molecules are polysaccharides consisting of branched, repeating units of sugars or sugar derivatives. Other important disaccharides, products of the heteropooysaccharides of starch and glycogen, are maltose and isomaltose, formed both of them by two molecules of glucose, but linked in a different way.

The colored hexagons represent residues of the outer branches, which are removed enzymatically one at a time during the intracellular mobilization of starch for energy production. Since an oligomer of at least four monomers is required for glycogen synthase to extend a chain, the process uses a primer that is itself provided by another enzyme, glycogenin.

As a matter of fact, most of them share the attribute of being synthesized by extracellular glycansucrases. They are food ingredients and used in the manufacture of fermented milk products and cheese [ 26 ].

The three-dimensional structure of carbohydrate-containing macromolecules can be understood using the same principles that explain the structure of polypeptides and nucleic acids: One example of that is termites. Figure The peptidoglycan of the cell wall of the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Figure Electron micrographs of starch and glycogen granules.


Exopolysaccharides Production by Lactic Acid Bacteria

They contain a pentameric repeating unit of galactose. Usually they provide homopolysaccharjdes support for organisms of all kingdoms: EPS Uses Dextran As adjuvant, emulsifier, carrier and stabilizer in food and pharmaceutical industries, plasma substitute, matrix of chromatography column, anticoagulant, paper industry, metal plating processing, for enhanced oil recovery, biomaterials.

The homopolysaccharkdes structure of the heteropolysaccharide has different repeating units. The most important heteropolysaccharides are found in the connective tissues of all animals and include a group of large molecules that vary in size, shape, and interaction with other body substances.

There are some steps which energy used in this process; 1 One ATP is required for the conversion of sugar to sugar phosphate, 2 another is needed for synthesis of each nucleotide and 3 one more is required for phosphorylation of isoprenoid C55 lipid carrier Figure 3 [ 2829 ]. The monomer of cellulose is glucose.

These oligosaccharides have huge industrial application as prebiotics, nutraceuticals, sweeteners, humectants, drug against colon cancer, immune stimulators and so on [ 10 ]. In the hexose unit at lower left, all hydrogen atoms are shown; in the other three hexose units all hydrogens attached to carbon have been omitted for clarity, as they do not participate in hydrogen bonding.