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Object permanence in orangutans Pongo pygmaeus and squirrel monkeys Saimiri sciureus. The authors tested orangutans Pongo pygmaeus and squirrel monkeys Saimiri sciureus on object permanence tasks. In Experiment 1, orangutans solved all visible displacements and most invisible displacements except those involving movements into 2 boxes successively. In Experiment 2, performance of orangutans on double invisible displacements and control displacements assessing simple strategies was compared.

Orangutans did not use actualizara simple strategy of selecting the box visited last by the experimenter. Instead, poorer performance on double invisible displacements may have been related to increased memory requirements. In Experiment 3, squirrel monkeys were tested using the procedure of Experiment 1.

Squirrel monkeys solved visible but did not comprehend invisible displacements. Results suggest that orangutans but not squirrel monkeys possess Stage 6 object permanence capabilities.

Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas harian orangutan kalimantan Pongo pygmaeus. Pengamatan dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode focal animal actualisada pada dua ekor orangutan kalimantan jantan dewasa. Kedua ekor orangutan tersebut diamati aktivitasnya pada pagi hari pukul Data aktivitas harian dicatat selama tiga jam dengan mencatat kejadian aktivitas setiap satu menit.

Orangutan kalimantan lebih banyak melakukan aktivitas pada sore hari dari pada pagi hari.

Aktivitas harian orangutan kalimantan yang diamati di Bali Safari and Marine Park berturut-turut dari yang paling banyak ke aktivitas paling sedikit yaitu istirahat, makan, bergerak bermain, grooming, agresif, dan seksual. Object permanence in orangutans Pongo pygmaeuschimpanzees Pan troglodytesand children Homo sapiens. Three containers were presented forming a straight line, and a small box was used to displace a reward under them.

Subjects received 3 types of displacement: All species performed at comparable levels, solving all problems except the invisible nonadjacent displacements.

Visible displacements were easier than invisible, and single were easier than double displacements. In a 2nd experiment, subjects saw the baiting of either 2 adjacent or 2 nonadjacent containers with no displacements. All species selected the empty container more often when the baited containers were nonadjacent than when they were adjacent.

It is hypothesized that a response bias and inhibition problem were responsible for the poor performance in nonadjacent displacements. Developmental changes in the facial morphology of the Borneo orangutan Pongo pygmaeus: Orangutans display remarkable developmental changes and sexual differences in facial morphology, such as the flanges or cheek-pads that develop only on the face of dominant adult males.

These changes suggest that facial morphology is an important factor in visual communication. However, developmental changes in facial morphology have not been examined in detail.

We studied developmental changes in the facial morphology of the Borneo orangutan Actualizaada pygmaeus by observing 79 individuals of various ages living in the Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre SORC in Malaysia and in Japanese zoos. We also analyzed photographs of one captive male that were taken over a period of more than 16 years.

There were clear morphological changes that occurred with growth, and we identified previously unreported sexual and developmental differences in facial morphology.

Light-colored skin around the eyes and mouth is most prominent in animals younger than 3 years, and rapidly decreases in area through the age of approximately 7 years. At the same time, the scattered, erect hairs on the head infant hair become thick, dense hairs lying on the head adult hair in both sexes.

The results suggest that these features are infant signals, and that adult signals may include darkened face color, adult hair, whiskers, and a beard, which begin to develop after the age of approximately 7 years in both sexes. In females, the eyelids remain white even after 10 years, and turn black at around the age of 20; in males, the eyelids turn black before the age of The whiskers and beards of adults are thicker in males than in females, and are fully developed before the age of 10 in males, while they begin to develop in females only after approximately 20 years.


White eyelids and undeveloped whiskers and beards may be visual signals that are indicative of young adult females. Our results also show that the facial morphology of the unflanged male is similar to that of the adult female, although. Tool-use and tool-making by captive, group-living orangutans Pongo pygmaeus abelii at an artificial termite mound.

The present study examined the use and making of tools to obtain foodstuffs in artificial-mound holes by five captive, group-living Sumatran orangutans Pongo pygmaeus abelii. Three adult orangutans frequently stripped leaves and twigs from a branch provided tool-makingand then inserted the tool into a hole to obtain foodstuffs tool-using.

A 5-year-old female juvenile usually used the tools that adult orangutans had previously used, but rarely made tools herself. A 2-year-old male infant did not use any tools. The adult orangutans tend to leave one to several leaves at the top of the branch than to leave many leaves on the branch or to strip all leaves. It seemed likely that tools with appropriate leaves are easier to insert into holes and obtain more foodstuffs, compared with branches with many leaves or sticks without any leaves.

These findings are discussed from the perspectives of the orangutan ‘s behavioral flexibility regarding tool-use skills and hierarchical organization in food-processing techniques. Full Text Available For orangutansthe largest predominantly arboreal primates, discontinuous canopy presents a particular challenge. The shortest gaps between trees lie between thin peripheral branches, which offer the least stability to large animals. The affordances of the forest canopy experienced by orangutans of different ages however, must vary substantially as adult males are an order of magnitude larger in size than infants during the early stages of locomotor independence.

Orangutans have developed a diverse range of locomotor behaviour to cross gaps between trees, which vary in their physical and cognitive demands. The aims of this study were to examine the ontogeny of orangutan gap crossing behaviours and to determine which factors influence the distance orangutans crossed. A non-invasive photographic technique was used to quantify forearm length as a measure of body size.

We also recorded locomotor behaviour, support use and the distance crossed between trees. Our results suggest that gap crossing varies with both physical and cognitive development. More complex locomotor behaviours, which utilized compliant trunks and lianas, were used to cross the largest gaps, but these peaked in frequency much earlier than expected, between the ages of 4 and 5 years old, which probably reflects play behaviour to perfect locomotor techniques.

Smaller individuals also crossed disproportionately large gaps relative to their size, by using support deformation. Our results suggest that orangutans acquire the full repertoire of gap crossing techniques, including the more cognitively demanding ones, before weaning, but adjust the frequency of the use of these techniques to their increasing body size. Full Text Available Orang-utans played a communication game in two studies testing their ability to produce and comprehend requestive pointing.

While the ‘communicator’ could see but not obtain hidden food, the ‘donor’ could release the food to the communicator, but could not see its location for herself. They could coordinate successfully if the communicator pointed to the food, and if the donor comprehended his communicative goal and responded pro-socially. In Study 1, one orang-utan pointed regularly and accurately for peers.

However, they responded only rarely. In Study 2, a human experimenter played the communicator’s role in three conditions, testing the apes’ comprehension of points of different heights and different degrees of ostension. There was no effect of condition.

However, across conditions one donor performed well individually, and as a group orang-utans ‘ comprehension performance tended towards significance. We explain this on the grounds that comprehension required inferences that they found difficult – but not 263361. The finding has valuable implications for our thinking about the development of pointing in phylogeny. Recent research suggests that witnessing events of fission e. The present studies investigated the reactions of gorillas and orangutans to cohesion violation across different types of fission events implementing a behavioral….


Functional anatomy and adaptation of male gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla with comparison to male orangutans Pongo pygmaeus. Great apes diversified during the Miocene in Old World forests. Two lineages, gorillas in Africa and orangutans in Asia, have sexual dimorphisms of super-sized males, though they presumably diverged from a smaller common ancestor.

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actalizada We test the hypothesis that they increased in body mass independently and convergently, and that their many postcranial differences reflect locomotor differences. Whole body dissections of five adult male gorillas and four adult male orangutans allowed quantification of body mass distribution to limb segments, of body composition muscle, bone, skin, and fat relative to total body massand of muscle distribution and proportions. Results demonstrate that gorilla forelimb anatomy accommodates shoulder joint mobility for vertical climbing and reaching while maintaining joint stability during quadrupedal locomotion.

The heavily muscled hind limbs are equipped for propulsion and weight-bearing over relatively stable substrates on the forest floor. In contrast, orangutan forelimb length, muscle mass, and joint construction are modified for strength and mobility in climbing, bridging, and traveling over flexible supports through the forest canopy.

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Leh of hip, knee, and ankle joints provide rotational and prehensile strength essential for moving on unstable and discontinuous branches. We conclude that anatomical similarities are due to common ancestry and that differences in postcranial anatomy reflect powerful selection for divergent locomotor adaptations. These data further support atualizada evolutionary conclusion that gorillas fall with chimpanzees and humans as part of the African hominoid radiation; orangutans are a specialized outlier.

Genetic characterization of Strongyloides spp. Nematodes of the genus Strongyloides may represent a severe cause of death in wild and captive individuals.

Thirty isolates, including the one from the human, could be identified as S. The ITS1 sequences could be determined for 17 of these isolates revealing a huge variability and 2 main clusters without obvious pattern with regard to attributes of the hosts.

The ITS1 amplicons of 2 isolates were cloned and sequenced, revealing considerable variability indicative of mixed infections.

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One isolate from a captive individual was identified as S. The findings are significant with regard to the zoonotic nature of these parasites and might contribute to the conservation of remaining orangutan populations.

Fluctuations of population density in Bornean orangutans Pongo pygmaeus morio related to fruit availability in the Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia: During the research period, two mast fruitings and three other peak fruiting events of different scales occurred in the study area. The population density increased markedly during mast and peak fruiting periods.

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. Orangutans are critically endangered primarily due to loss and fragmentation of their natural habitat. This could bring them into closer contact with humans and increase the risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission.

To describe the prevalence and diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. The overall prevalence of parasites in examined animals was The most prevalent microsporidia was Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype II, found in 21 animals 7.

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To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report actuqlizada these parasites in orangutans. Eight animals were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. Giardia intestinalis assemblage B, subtype MB6, was identified in a single individual.