AMBERLYST BD20 PDF

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Esterification of free fatty acids using water-tolerable Amberlyst as a of heterogeneous acid catalysts, Amberlyst 15 and Amberlyst BD The grant supports Rohm and Haas’s development of a newly commercial polymeric catalyst technology, AMBERLYSTâ„¢ BD20 specialty. When the FFA contents of oils were and wt%, the activity of Amberlyst 15 gradually decreased with recycling, whereas the activity of Amberlyst BD

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Since the fouling and deactivation phenomenon occurs gradually and is dependent on feedstock contaminant concentration, sufficient time is needed to observe increasing product FFA trends. The reaction temperature may be maintained by electric heat, steam, thermal fluid or other such industrial means practiced by one skilled in the art.

Esterification of free fatty acids using water-tolerable Amberlyst as a heterogeneous catalyst.

The pretreatment steps may include drying, filtering including in-line sock filters, ceramic membrane filters, absorbent media, etc. Homogenous catalysis provides excellent selectivity and activity. In one embodiment there may be multiple reactors arranged in a way to allow for taking ambeflyst or more reactor s offline while the heterogeneous catalyst in one or more different reactor s is regenerated.

The second reaction mixture 5 enters unit which may be a decanter, centrifuge, flash evaporator, flash drum, vacuum distillation column, or amberkyst similar separation unit. In another embodiment method is conducted in parallel with method Unit may be an inline mixer, stirred tank, continuously stirred-tank reactor or other such unit operation depending on the desired amberlysr conditions as determined by someone skilled in the art.

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US USB2 en After a prescribed residence time a first reaction mixture 3 exits the first reactor containing lower quantities of carboxylic acid than the feedstock 1.

Depending on the unit operation desired, unit may operate at temperatures and pressures above or below atmospheric conditions. These steps can occur amberlysr different vessels in multiple stages according to one skilled in the art. Another method of the invention, with reference to FIG. The reaction a,berlyst take place at an elevated temperature to improve reaction kinetics.

The present invention generally relates to converting carboxylic acids into esters by esterification with alcohols in the presence of dual catalysts.

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The final average FFA content of the dry reaction mixture was 0. Method anberlyst preparing fatty acid alkyl esters from waste or recycled fatty acid stock.

Approximately g of feedstock was fed over 6. In one embodiment, the second reaction mixture 10 is washed with water before entering a decanter Since such deactivation is amberrlyst acceptable for commercial operation, new strategies must be developed to continuously maintain heterogeneous catalyst activity while simultaneously promoting the acid esterification reaction.

In another embodiment method is repeated in series with method The method of claim 1wherein said carboxylic acid content of the feedstock is between 0. In one embodiment the FFA content of the reaction mixture is maintained at a sufficiently low level to enter a catalytic transesterification or hydrotreating process without requiring an intermediate FFA removal step.

The method of claim 1wherein said reactor is a fixed bed reactor. In one embodiment, the feedstock containing carboxylic acid 1 is pretreated to remove impurities and dried to remove moisture before entering the reactor Combined homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic transesterification process for biodiesel production.

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This equates to a liquid hourly space velocity of 2. A pretreatment process may be used to reduce the FFA content in the raw materials i.

The method of claim 1wherein the combination of said homogeneous catalyst and said heterogeneous catalyst ambeerlyst increased conversion relative to the use of either catalyst alone.

Esterification of free fatty acids using water-tolerable Amberlyst as a heterogeneous catalyst.

The regeneration may be performed in multiple steps bdd20 different acid concentrations and residence times in each step. In yet another embodiment, the amount of homogenous catalyst introduced to a reactor is between 0. The drawings are not to scale and represent exemplary configurations that depict general principles of the technology which are not meant to limit the scope of the invention.

Maberlyst one embodiment, the final reaction mixture 35or 10 is separated into an alcohol and water phase and an oil phase also referred to herein as the dry reaction mixture. In one embodiment, the operating conditions in units and are substantially similar to those described previously for unit The reaction should take place under sufficient pressure to maintain the alcohol in a ambedlyst state at the desired reaction temperature.