It’s an analysis model of a BJT. Consists of a couple of diodes and current sources. The Alpha parameters are given for a particular device. saturation region and so not useful (on its own) for a SPICE model. • The started to look at the development of the Ebers Moll BJT model. • We can think of the. The Ebers-Moll transistor model is an attempt to create an electrical model of the . The Ebers-Moll BJT Model is a good large-signal, steady-state model of.

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By convention, the direction of current on diagrams is shown as ehers direction that a positive charge would move. Ebers—Moll model for a PNP transistor.

In the more traditional BJT, also referred to as homojunction BJT, the efficiency of carrier injection from the emitter to the base is primarily determined by the doping ratio between the emitter and base, which means the base must be lightly doped to obtain high injection efficiency, making its resistance relatively high.

It is convenient to rewrite the emitter current due to electrons, I E,nas a function of the total excess minority charge in the base, D Q n,B. SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors. The thin shared base and asymmetric collector—emitter doping are what differentiates a bipolar transistor from two separate and oppositely biased diodes connected in series. This gain is usually or more, but robust circuit designs do not depend mol the exact value for example see op-amp.

BJTs can be thought of as voltage-controlled current sourcesbut are more simply characterized as current-controlled current sources, or current amplifiers, due to the low impedance at the base.

The BJT also makes a good amplifier, since it can multiply a weak input signal to about times its original strength.

Bipolar junction transistor

Arrow according to schematic. The h refers to its being an h-parameter, a set of parameters named for their origin in a hybrid equivalent circuit model. In this article, current arrows are shown in the conventional direction, but labels for the movement of holes and electrons ,odel their actual direction inside the transistor.

Transistors can be thought of as two diodes P—N junctions sharing a common region that minority carriers can move through. Common emitter Common collector Common base. This section may be too technical ebeds most readers to understand. Radiation causes a buildup of ‘defects’ in the base region that act as recombination centers.


The same description applies to a PNP transistor with reversed directions of current flow and applied voltage. Semiconductor Device Modeling with Spice. Although these regions are well defined for sufficiently large applied voltage, they overlap somewhat for small less than a few hundred millivolts biases. The emitter current therefore equals the excess minority carrier charge present in the base region, divided by the time this charge spends in the base.

For high current gain, most of the carriers injected into the emitter—base junction must come from the emitter. As well, as the base is lightly doped in comparison to the emitter and mill regionsrecombination rates are low, permitting more carriers to diffuse across the base region.

They are the forward active mode of operation, the reverse active mode eber operation, the saturation mode and the cut-off mode. Both factors increase the collector or “output” current of the transistor in response to an increase in the collector—base voltage. Using the parameters identified in Figure 5.

The base internal current is mainly by diffusion see Fick’s law and. This charge is proportional to the triangular area in the quasi-neutral base as shown in Figure 5. The Schottky diode clamps the base-collector voltage at a value, which is slightly lower than the turn-on voltage of the base-collector diode.

The collector—emitter current can be viewed as being controlled by the base—emitter current current controlor by the base—emitter voltage voltage control.

The electrical resistivity of doped silicon, like other semiconductors, has a negative temperature coefficientmeaning that it conducts more current at higher temperatures. The collector diode is reverse-biased so I CD is virtually zero.

The diagram shows a schematic representation of an NPN transistor connected to two voltage sources. This ratio usually has moxel value close to unity; between 0.

Chapter 5: Bipolar Junction Transistors

The current sources quantify the transport of minority carriers through the base region. It is typically greater than 50 for small-signal transistors, but can be smaller in transistors designed for high-power applications. That drift component of transport aids the normal diffusive transport, increasing the frequency response of the transistor by shortening the transit time across the base.


The physical explanation for collector current is the concentration of minority carriers in the base region.

This can be explained as follows: The saturation currents I E,s and I C,s are obtained by measuring the base-emitter base-collector diode saturation current while shorting the base-collector base-emitter diode. For other uses, see Junction transistor disambiguation. This barrier arrangement helps reduce minority carrier injection from the base when the emitter-base junction is under forward bias, oc thus reduces base current and increases emitter injection efficiency.

Bipolar Junction Transistors

In general, transistor-level circuit design is performed using SPICE or a comparable analog-circuit simulator, so model complexity is usually not of much concern to the designer. The emitter efficiency defined by equation 5.

However, to accurately and reliably design production BJT circuits, the voltage-control for example, Ebers—Moll model is required.

To allow for greater current and faster operation, most bipolar transistors used today are NPN because electron mobility is higher than hole mobility. The values of the minority carrier densities at the edges of the depletion regions are indicated on the Figure 5.

An increase in the collector—base voltage, for example, causes a greater reverse bias across the collector—base junction, increasing the collector—base depletion region width, and decreasing the width of the base. When the device is in forward active or forward saturated mode, the arrow, placed on the emitter leg, points in the direction of the conventional current. Physics and Technology of Heterojunction Devices. A BJT consists of three differently doped semiconductor regions: For example, in the typical grounded-emitter configuration of an NPN BJT used as a pulldown switch in digital logic, the “off” state never involves a reverse-biased junction because the base voltage never goes below ground; nevertheless the forward bias is close enough to zero that essentially no current flows, so this end of the forward eers region can bjr regarded as the cutoff region.