In anthropology, liminality is the quality of ambiguity or disorientation that . Turner also worked on the idea of communitas, the feeling of camaraderie associated among a group experiencing the same liminal. Communitas is a Latin noun commonly referring either to an unstructured community in which people are equal, or to the very spirit of community. It also has special significance as a loanword in cultural anthropology and the social sciences. Victor Turner, who defined the anthropological usage of communitas, was Communitas is characteristic of people experiencing. Liminality, the Liminoid and Communitas: Why Rites of Passage Matter Still Turner: “I see [the liminal] as a kind of institutional capsule or pocket which.

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Anonymous November 1, at 6: In such situations, “the very structure of society [is] temporarily suspended” [27].

Liminality – Wikipedia

Teenagers, being neither children nor adults, are liminal people: He researched the meaning of rituals and their symbolism in this context. His concepts of symbols and social dramas have become useful in anthropological textbooks. To a traveller staying there, the hotel would function as a liminal zone, just as ‘doors and windows and hallways and gates frame Tuner conceptualized culture as a constant struggle between structure and anti-structure.

This sacred component is acquired during rites of passage, through the changing of positions. Communitas is a Latin noun commonly referring either to an unstructured community in which people are equal, or to the very spirit of community.

In such a liminal situation, “the initiands live outside their normal environment and are brought to question their self and the existing social order anv a series of rituals that often involve acts of pain: Although we take theories into the communitaas with us, these become relevant only if and when they illuminate social reality.

In the MahabharataIndra promises communitsa to slay Namuci and Vritra with anything wet or dry, trner in the day or in the night, but instead kills them at dusk with foam. He began with the orthodox structural-functional position of British anthropologists, such as Radcliffe-Brownbut focused on how to understand the transmission of cultural symbols from generation to generation, and the changes in rituals that reflected social change. Like many of the Manchester anthropologists of his time, he also became concerned with conflictand created the new concept of “social drama” in order to account for the symbolism of conflict and crisis resolution among Ndembu villagers.

Van Gennep described the process of shifting from one social status to another in three stages: To explore the liminal state of the researcher in relation to the culture, self-reflexivity and awareness are important tools to reveal researcher bias and interpretation.


Major theorists Augustin Calmet Akbar S. Van Gennep, who coined the term liminality, published in his ‘Rites de Passage’, a work that explores and develops the concept of liminality in the context of rites in small-scale societies. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The Goodmans emphasize freedom from both coercion by a government or church and from human necessities by providing these free of cost to all citizens who do a couple of years of conscripted labor as young adults.

Another significant variable is “scale,” or the “degree” to which an individual or communitass experiences liminality. Airplane travel is inherently liminoid-suspended in the sky, neither here nor there and crossing thresholds of time and space, it is difficult to make sense of the experience of flying. While employed there, he traveled to Uganda to conduct his fieldwork among the Gisu people.


The communitas is according to Turner the ultimate vision of a culture. Jungian-based psychoanalysis is also deeply rooted in the ideas of liminality.

Turner’s work resurfaced at the end of the li,inality century, among a variety of disciplines, proving to be an important part of the social sciences. Beyond this, her transition to immortality to live with Cupid serves as a liminal rite of passage in which she shifts from mortal to immortal, human to goddess; when Psyche drinks the ambrosia and seals her fate, the rite lliminality completed and the liminlity ends with a xommunitas wedding and the birth of Cupid and Psyche’s daughter.

Coil mention liminality throughout their works, most explicitly with the title of their song “Batwings A Limnal Hymn ” sic from their album Musick to Play in the Dark Vol. Rather, it is a void, a debt, a gift to the other that also reminds us of our constitutive alterity with respect to ourselves. When a marriage proposal is initiated there is a liminal stage between the question and the answer during which the social arrangements of both parties involved are subject to transformation and inversion; a sort of “life stage limbo” so to speak in that the affirmation or denial can result in multiple and diverse outcomes.

Cultural anthropology Anthropology of religion Crossroads mythology.

Likewise, in Hindu text Bhagavat PuranaVishnu appears in a half-man half- lion form named Narasimha to destroy the demon Hiranyakashipu who has obtained the power never to be killed in day nor night, in the ground nor in the air, with weapon nor by bare hands, in a building nor outside it, by man nor beast.

His father was an electrical engineer and his mother an actress. Byatt, which describes how postmodern ‘Literary theory. He asserted that pilgrimage was, by its liminal nature, extraordinary, and not part of daily life and therefore not a part of the make up of everyday society.


By constructing this three-part sequence, van Gennep identified a pattern he believed was inherent in all ritual passages.

The temporal dimension of liminality can relate to moments sudden eventsperiods weeks, months, or possibly yearsand epochs decades, generations, maybe even centuries. Carl Rogers describes “the ‘out-of-this-world’ quality that many therapists have remarked upon, a sort of trance-like feeling in the commjnitas that liminaljty and therapist emerge from at the end of the hour, as if from a deep well or tunnel. The Coming CommunityMinnesota: Turner noted that in “liminality,” the transitional state between two phases, individuals were “betwixt and between”—they did not belong to the society that they previously were a part of, and they were not yet re-incorporated into that society.

Turner, who is considered to have “re-discovered the importance of liminality”, first came across van Gennep’s work in Turner confirmed his nomenclature for ‘the three phases of passage from one culturally defined state or status to another Next Victor de Riqueti, marquis de Mirabeau.

They even show how scattered facts may be systematically connected! The most familiar is the difference of secular and sacred. It was in Chicago that Turner started to investigate world religionsand in particular the study of Christian pilgrimage. Twilight serves as a liminal time, between day and night—where one is ‘in the twilight zone, in a liminal nether region of the night’.

Victor Turner and Contemporary Cultural Performance.

Liminalty, in terms of social structure and time, is an intermediate state of being “in between” in which individuals are striped from their usual identity and their constituting social differences while being on the verge of personal or social transformation.

One primary characteristic of liminality as defined van Gennep and Turner is that there is a way in as well as a limminality out.

Symbolic Action in Human Society. Narasimha kills Hiranyakashipu at dusk, across his lap, with his sharp claws, on the threshold of the palace, and as Narasimha is a god himself, the demon is killed by neither man nor beast.


The researcher must consider the self in relation to others and his or her positioning in the culture being studied. Communitas is an acute point of community.